Volcanic clouds have only sporadically been directly sampled. Sampling is advantageous to validate remote sensing. Direct sampling was more common in the 1978-1984 period before the hazards to jet aircraft were understood and when piston aircraft sampling was more prevalent. This sampling revealed the character of particles smaller than about 100 microns in diameter, which includes most of the particles with residence times longer that an few hours. The presentation summarizes much of the work from 1978-84 and also the surprise encounter by an instrumented NASA DC-8 with the Hekla volcanic cloud of 2000.
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